The highest number of antibiotics are produced by Streptomyces.
Antibiotics are antimicrobial substances widely used as medications to treat and prevent bacterial and fungal infections. According to their origins, antibiotics can be divided into natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic. Antibiotics are synthesized bacteria and fungi. These microorganisms synthesized antibiotics as secondary metabolites.
“Penicillin” was discovered by the Scottish physician and microbiologist Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928. He isolated the antibiotic from the green mold Penicillium chrysogenum. The term antibiotic was first time used by Selman Abraham Waksman in 1943.
The Streptomyces group produces more than 65% of medically actively use antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics. The Streptomyces is the largest genus of the phylum Actinobacteria in the Kingdom Bacteria. They are Gram-positive bacteria and can be aquatic or terrestrial.
Below are the lists of antibiotics that are isolated from the group Streptomyces are
- Nystatin is synthesized by Streptomyces noursei and use against the Candida infections of the skin.
- Amphotericin B is synthesized by Streptomyces nodosus and use against the fungal infections mucormycosis and candidiasis.
- Natamycin is synthesized by Streptomyces natalensis and use against the fungal infections of the eye.
- Neomycin is synthesized by Streptomyces fradiae and use to treat tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Chloramphenicol is synthesized by Streptomyces venezuelae and use to treat typhoid caused by Salmonella typhi.
- Streptomycin is synthesized by Streptomyces griseus and use to Tuberculosis and Plague caused by Yersinia pestis.