A genophore is made up of a single double-stranded DNA.
The chromosome in a eukaryotic organism is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins (histones and non-histone proteins). The chromosomes are localized in the nucleoplasm inside the nucleus. The nuclear membrane or the nuclear envelop separates the nucleoplasm from the cell cytoplasm. Unlike eukaryotes, where the chromosomes are confined to the nucleus, the chromosome in prokaryotes is found in irregularly shaped regions or undefined nucleus. The nucleus-like structure which contains the naked chromosome is called the nucleoid.
The chromosome in prokaryotic organisms (i.e. bacteria) is only composed of DNA and without histones proteins. The genome of a prokaryote comprises only one chromosome. The chromosome is a double-stranded covalently closed circular DNA. Research on E. coli suggests that the circular chromosomal DNA (~ 4.6 x 106 bp) is associated with Nucleoid-associated proteins or NAPs. Apart from the packaging of the chromosome, NAPs are also involved in the transcription of RNA, replication of DNA, recombination, and repair.
The genophore is referred to as the DNA of a prokaryotic cell or the prokaryotic chromosome. Due to the absence of histones proteins and a true chromatin-like structure, the prokaryotic chromosome is called the genophore. The genophore condensed compacted by a mechanism called supercoiling.
The genophore of the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium is 580,073 base pairs. The organelle DNA present in mitochondria and chloroplasts are also called genophores.