The concept of “Germaplasm” was developed by

[wp_quiz id=”14137″]

The concept of “Germplasm” was developed by German evolutionary biologist August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (1834 – 1914). The germplasm theory is also known as Weismannism. The theory suggests that all multi-cellular organisms are composed of somatoplasm and germplasm. Weismann introduced the germ plasm theory in his book “The Germ Plasm: a theory of inheritance” in 1892.

The somatoplasm (somatic cells) builds up the body while the germplasm (germ cells) transmits characters from the parents to the offspring. Germ cells can produce somatic cells and germ cells.

Further, the genetic information cannot pass from the somatoplasm to the germplasm known as the Weismann barrier.

Which of the following bee possesses 16 chromosomes in its genome?

[wp_quiz id=”14049″]

The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an insect belonging to the order Hymenoptera. The honey bee colony comprises three different types of bees. They are queens, workers, and drones. The queens and the workers are females who are diploid (2n) in nature and possess 32 chromosomes.

On the other hand, drones are males, hatch from the unfertilized eggs and haploid (n) in nature. Drone possesses 16 chromosomes in its genome.

The hereditary fructose intolerance is caused due to the absence of

[wp_quiz id=”13601″]

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is caused due to the absence of the enzyme Aldolase B. HFI is an autosomal recessive disorder and an inborn error of fructose metabolism. Hereditary fructose intolerance is associated with defects in fructose metabolism in the body. The metabolic enzyme Aldolase B is also known as liver-type aldolase or fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B. Aldolase B belongs to the class I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase enzyme.

Aldolase B is encoded by the ALDOB gene in Humans. The gene is located on chromosome 9. The ALDOB gene contains 14,500 bp and 9 exons. Aldolase B plays a key role in fructose metabolism. The enzyme is a part of the glycolytic-gluconeogenic pathway.

Fructose-1-phosphate is cleaved by the enzyme aldolase B into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). HFI causes intracellular accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate in the liver. HFI is characterized by vomiting, hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, jaundice, hepatomegaly, etc.

Who is considered as the father of experimental genetics?

[wp_quiz id=”13433″]

American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866 – 1945) is regarded as the father of experimental genetics. Morgan was awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discovering the role of chromosomes in heredity. He performed genetic experiments on Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). He established Drosophila as a model organism.

The number of sex chromosomes is normal in

[wp_quiz id=”12054″]

The number of sex chromosomes is normal for Down’s syndrome. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder and caused due to abnormal cell division that results in an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). A normal human contains 46 chromosomes (44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes (XX or XY)). However, in the case of Down’s syndrome (Trisomy 21) (44+XY+21) for males and (44+XX+21) for females. As the genetic disorder does not affect the number of sex chromosomes, a person with Down’s syndrome posses normal numbers of sex chromosomes.

Some common physical features of Down syndrome include A short neck with a flattened face, small ears, tongue stick out of the mouth, small hands and feet, loose joints with poor muscle tone (hypotonia), shorter in height, presence of single crease across the palms on the hands, etc.

A person with Down’s syndrome also has a greater risk for other medical problems such as congenital heart disease, musculoskeletal and movement problems, hearing loss, speech apraxia, sleep disorder, learning disabilities, and intellectual disabilities.

Philadelphia chromosome is found in the patient of

[wp_quiz id=”11818″]

The Philadelphia chromosome is a genetic abnormality found on chromosome 22 of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The abnormality arises due to the reciprocal translocation between chromosome 22 and chromosome 9 (t(9;22)(q34;q11)) and a fused gene called BCR-ABL1. The translocation is also known as the Philadelphia translocation (Ph).

The ABL1 gene encodes a protein called Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 is located on chromosome 9. The BCR gene encodes a protein called renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-26 is located on chromosome 22. Due to the translocation, a fusion BCR-ABL1 gene is formed, which encodes constitutively active tyrosine protein kinase. This induced the cell to divide uncontrollably by interrupting the signaling pathways that regulate the cell cycle.