A gymnast is able to balance his body upside down even in the total darkness because of

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In vertebrates, the vestibular system is associated with the sense of balance. The vestibular system is the proprioceptive somatosensory system present in the inner ear. The main function of the vestibular system is to sense the spatial position of the head and the other body parts as well as the motion.

The vestibular system consists of three semicircular canals that detect the angular position of the head and the utricle and saccule detect the spatial orientation of the head. The stimulation received by the vestibular system sends to the brain through the vestibulocochlear nerve.