Soil salinity is measured by

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To measure the mineral content (the total mineralisation) and salt concentration or the salinity of the soil, a instrument called the Conductivity meter is used. The conductivity meter measures the salt concentration of the soil by estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil and the water solution.

Salt on the soil and the water solution increase the ability of a solution to conduct an electrical current, so a high EC value indicates a high salinity level.