Diabetes is due to:

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Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that arises due to a high level of sugar in the blood for a long time. Diabetes is caused due to deficiency of pancreatic hormone insulin. The hormone insulin is a peptide hormone (51 amino acids, molecular weight 5808 Da) synthesized by the beta cells in the pancreas.

In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces very less amount of insulin, and in Type 2 diabetes cells fail to respond to insulin (insulin resistance).

The number of cornea in the eye of butterfly is

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Butterflies are insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera and phylum Arthropoda. One of the morphological features of all the insects is the presence of compound eyes. Each compound eye is composed of thousands of photoreception units known as ommatidia.

Each ommatidium consists of cornea, lens, and photoreceptor cells. The photoreceptors cells are associated with supporting cells and pigment cells. Each compound eye of a butterfly consists of around 17000 ommatidia. Thus, the number of corneas present in the eye of butterflies is around 17000.

Bone marrow is absent in the bones of

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Bone marrow is composed of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. It is found in the bones of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. It is the primary site for the production of blood cells or hematopoiesis. Red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and white blood cells (WBCs) are formed in the bone marrow of amniote vertebrates.

However, bone marrow is absent in the Aves or birds. The bone of the birds is modified to adopt flight. Most of the bones in birds are pneumatic in nature and filled with air sacs and replace bone marrow. In birds, hematopoiesis occurs in the bursa of Fabricius.

Pearls are produced by the animals of phylum

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Pearl is a hard object developed inside the soft tissue (mantle) of animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. Pearls are composed of calcium carbonate. The animals are shelled mollusk or bivalve mollusks. These mollusks are found in both freshwater and saltwater.  

The common pearl oyster used in the pearl culture is the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) and the marine pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

How much amount of air can be inspired or expired during normal breathing?

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Breathing is the process of moving air in (breath in or inhale) and out (breath out or exhale) of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. During inhalation, fresh air enters the lungs, and oxygen (O2) from the air in the lungs enters the blood. During exhale, carbon dioxide (CO2) moves from the blood to the lungs and then to the outside of the lungs.

The amount of air we breathe during each normal breath is known as Tidal volume (TV). The average tidal volume (TV) in a healthy person is about 0.5 L or 500 ml.

‘Mammalian thymus’ is mainly concerned with

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The thymus is a lymphoid organ and is located in the thoracic cavity. The thymus is active in adolescence and it degenerated after puberty. The main function of the mammalian thymus is associated with immunity.

The thymus is the site for the maturation of T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes or Thymus lymphocytes are lymphocytes that play important role in cell-mediated immunity. Examples: cytotoxic T lymphocytes, helper T lymphocytes, and regulatory T lymphocytes.

Cyclosporin is

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Cyclosporin is an immuno supressive drug. Immuno supressive drugs are drugs that inhibit the activity of the immune system. Cyclosporin was isolated from the ascomycete fungus Tolypocladium inflatum in 1971.

Cyclosporin is  approved by US FDA for the treatment in kidney, heart, liver and bone marrow transplantation. The drug inhibit Calcineurin, an enzyme responsible for the T cell activation.

The number of exons and introns present in the human insulin gene is

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Insulin is a peptide hormone that plays important role in the regulation of blood sugar levels and glucose homeostasis. The insulin peptide is encoded by the INS gene in humans. The INS gene is present in a single copy located on the short arm (p arm) of chromosome 11 (11p15.5.).

In humans, the number of base-pair present on the INS gene is 1,425. In humans, the insulin gene contains three exons (protein-coding regions) and two introns (non-protein-coding regions).  

The AIDS virus spreads through

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Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the human population. HIV is a retrovirus having two identical single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules as its genome.

HIV invades Helper T cells (Helper T lymphocytes), an important cell of the immune system. The helper T cell is represented as CD4+ T cell due to the presence of the CD4 marker on the cell surface. The interaction between HIV and the T cell is mediated by the glycoprotein 120 (gp 120) present in the virus and the CD4 molecule of the helper T cell. Further, the virus infects the helper T cell by interacting with the coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. Thereafter, HIV enters to the helper T cell.

Damage to thymus in a child may lead to

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The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ. The lymphoid organ is located in the upper part of the chest. The thymus is the site for the maturation of Thymus cell lymphocytes or T cell lymphocytes. T cells are cells of the immune system that play an important part in cell-mediated immunity.

There are three types of T cells present in the body. (i) Helper T cell, (ii) Cytotoxic T cells, and (iii) Regulatory T cells. Cell-mediated immunity is provided by the T lymphocytes. As T cells needed the thymus for their maturation, damage to the thymus in the child can lead to loss of cell-mediated immunity.