Derris eliptica is a leguminous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. The plant is mostly found in Southeast Asia and the islands like New Guinea. The roots of Derris eliptica contain an insecticide called rotenone. Rotenone is an colorless and odorless plant isoflavone. Research shows that rotenone can induce symptoms similar to the neurological disorder Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Rotenone is also poisonous for fishes. Native peoples from the island of Fiji and New Guinea use the root of Derris eliptica to poison the fish. They crush the roots of Derris eliptica and poison the fish by mixing it with the water.
The fatty acids in the body are primarily oxidized by β-oxidation. During β-oxidation, the oxidation of fatty acids starts from the β-carbon atom, and a two-carbon compound acetyl CoA removes from each step.
Oxidation of fatty acids occurs in most tissue in the body except the brain, erythrocytes, and adrenal medulla.
β-oxidation of a fatty acid occurs in three different steps. During the first step, the fatty acid is activated to acyl CoA by acyl CoA synthetase. The second step is the transport of acyl CoA into the mitochondria. The third step is the β-oxidation of fatty acid and removal of two carbon unit acetyl CoA.
Saturated fatty acids with even carbon atoms, saturated fatty acids with odd carbon atoms, and unsaturated fatty acids oxidize through β-oxidation. α-oxidation is known in nature. However, no energy produces due to α-oxidation of fatty acids.
Botanical pesticides are pesticides that are made or derived from plants. Botanical or plant-based pesticides are easily degraded in the environment. Due to which these are less threat to beneficial insects. Botanical pesticides are usually low-to-moderate toxicity to mammals. Due to the difficulty in obtaining these pesticides, botanical pesticides are more costly.
Rotenone is plant-derived isoflavone. It is used as a broad-spectrum insecticide and pesticide. Rotenone is a colorless and odorless crystalline compound isolated from the jicama vine plant and plants belonging to the members of the Fabaceae family. Rotenone was first isolated by French botanist Emmanuel Geoffroy in 1895. He named the compound nicouline. Rotenone interferes with the complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria.
Examples of botanical pesticides are rotenone, citrus oil, ryania, nicotine, sabadilla, neem extract, etc.
Vitamin B6 is also known as Pyridoxine. The three organic compounds that are the vitamers of Vitamin B6 are pyridoxine (C8H11NO3, molecular weight 169 g/mol), pyridoxal (C8H9NO3, molecular weight 167 g/mol), and pyridoxamine (C8H12N2O2, molecular weight 168 g/mol). All the vitamers have a pyridine ring as their core.
The most biologically active form of vitamin B6 is Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. Vitamin B6 acts as a coenzyme in enzymes that are important for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, hemoglobin synthesis as well as the metabolism of glucose, amino acid and lipid.
Vitamin B6 is absorbed in the small intestine (jejunum) by passive diffusion. The catabolic end-product of vitamin B6 that is excreted through the urine is 4-pyridoxic acid. The normal level of 4-pyridoxic acid in the urine is 128-680 nmol per nmol of creatinine.
Bromelain is a protease enzyme extract isolated from pineapples. The enzyme is present in different parts of the pineapple plants. Bromelain is the protease enzyme isolated from the plants that belong to the Bromeliaceae family. The Bromeliaceae family contains monocot flowering plants. The plants belonging to the Bromeliaceae family are Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), Pineapple (Ananas comosus), and queen of the Andes (Puya raimondii).
The two main enzymes that belong to the Bromelain are stem bromelain (EC 22.214.171.124) and fruit bromelain (EC 126.96.36.199). Bromelain is beneficial in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and angina pectoris. It is also used to treat pain, muscle soreness, and burns.
Tocotrienols are not a vitamer of vitamin D. Vitamins are organic micronutrients that an organism requires in very minute quantities for its metabolism. Vitamins are broadly classified into fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K) and water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B and vitamin C).
On the other hand, the term “vitamer” refers to chemically or biologically similar compounds which show similar vitamin activities. Examples of vitamers of Vitamin A are retinol and retinal.
Vitamin D has three vitamers. They are Calcitriol, ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3). Similarly, Vitamin E has two vitamers. They are Tocopherols and tocotrienols.
Therefore, the tocotrienols are the vitamers of vitamin E and not a vitamer of vitamin D.
Out of the 20 protein-forming amino acids, four amino acids possess an aromatic ring. These amino acids are phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and histidine. On the other hand, the amino acid proline does not possess an aromatic ring on the R group. The ring structure on the proline is due to the side chain (R group) is connected to the protein backbone two times. This forms a five-membered ring and contains a nitrogen atom. This ring is not an aromatic ring as found in other amino acids.
The table sugar is made up of Sucrose. Sucrose is occurring naturally and is present in fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Sucrose is a disaccharide consisting of one molecule of fructose (C6H12O6)and one molecule of glucose (C6H12O6). The chemical formula of sucrose is (C12H22O11). The molecular weight is sucrose is 342 g/mol. British Chemist William Miller first time coined the term sucrose in 1857 (in French sucre means “sugar”).