A hemoglobin protein contains 574 amino acids.
The number of amino acids residues present in each hemoglobin protein is 574. Hemoglobin (Hb) is a globular Fe-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein present in the red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen in the body. Heme containing Hemoglobin protein gives a red color to the blood. Hemoglobin carries oxygen (O2) from the lungs to the tissues and helps to transport carbon dioxide (CO2) back to the lungs.
Hemoglobin is a tetrameric globular protein made up of four polypeptide chains. The polypeptide chains are two alpha and two beta chains. These polypeptide chains are encoded by more than one gene in humans. They are Hemoglobin A (HBA) gene present on chromosome 16 and the Hemoglobin B (HBB) gene present in chromosome 11. The alpha 1 chain is encoded by the HBA1 gene, the alpha 2 chain is encoded by the HBA1 gene, and the beta chain is encoded by the HBB gene.
Hemoglobin is made up of a heterocyclic porphyrin ring and amino acids. Each alpha chain consists of 141 amino acids residues and each beta chain consists of 146 amino acids residues. Therefore, the total amino acid present in one hemoglobin protein (a tetramer) is (141+141+ 146+146) is 574.
Hemoglobin with (E6V substitution): A genetic mutation changes the codon GAG (Glutamamic acid (E/Glu)) to GTG (Valine (V/val)) of the β-globin gene resulting in mutated hemoglobin or Sickle cell Hemoglobin (HbS).